Elizabeth II, fully Elizabeth Alexandra Mary, formally Elizabeth II, by the Grace of God, of the uk of nice {britain|United Kingdom|UK|Great Britain|GB|Britain|United Kingdom of nice Britain and Northern Ireland|kingdom} and European country and of her alternative realms and territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith, (born Gregorian calendar month 21, 1926, London, England), queen of the uk of Great Britain and Northern Ireland from Feb 6, 1952. In 2015 she surpassed Victoria to become the longest-reigning monarch in British history.


Elizabeth was the elder female offspring of blue blood Albert, duke of York, and his wife, girl Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon. because the child of a younger son of King St. George V, the young Elizabeth had very little prospect of acceding to the throne till her uncle, Duke of Windsor (afterward duke of Windsor), abdicated in her father’s favour on December 11, 1936, at which period her father became King King of England and she or he became heir presumptive. The aristocrat’s education was supervised by her mother, who entrusted her daughters to a governess, Marion Crawford; the princess was additionally grounded in history by C.H.K. Marten, subsequently academic administrator of Eton College, and had instruction from visiting academics in music and languages. throughout warfare II she and her sister, aristocrat Margaret Rose, perforce spent abundant of their time safely far from the London blitz associate degreed separated from their parents, living principally at castle in European country and at the Royal Lodge, Windsor, and Windsor Castle.

Queen Elizabeth 96th birthday
Queen Elizabeth 96th birthday

Early in 1947 aristocrat Elizabeth went with the king and queen to South Africa. once her come there was an announcement of her betrothal to her distant full cousin Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten of the Royal Navy, once Philip of Ellas and Denmark. the wedding passed off in minster on Nov 20, 1947. On the eve of the marriage her father, the king, presented upon the bridegroom the titles of duke of Edinburgh, peer of Merioneth, and Baron Greenwich. They took residence at carriage House in London. Their 1st child, Charles (Charles Duke of Edinburgh Arthur George), was born Nov 14, 1948, at Buckingham Palace.

Accession to the throne

within the summer of 1951 the health of King King of England entered into a heavy decline, and aristocrat Elizabeth painted him at the Trooping the color and on numerous alternative state occasions. On Oct seven she and her husband come into being on a extremely victorious tour of Canada and Washington, D.C. once Christmas in European nation she and therefore the duke come into being in January 1952 for a tour of Australia and New Zealand, however en route, at Sagana, Kenya, news reached them of the king’s death on Feb 6, 1952. Elizabeth, currently queen, promptly flew back to England. the primary 3 months of her reign, the amount of full mourning for her father, were passed in comparative seclusion. however within the summer, after she had rapt from carriage House to Buckingham Palace, she undertook the routine duties of the sovereign and meted out her First State gap of Parliament on Nov 4, 1952. Her installation was command at minster on Gregorian calendar month 2, 1953.

Queen Elizabeth in 2022
Queen Elizabeth in 2022

starting in November 1953 the queen {and the|and therefore the|and additionally the} duke of capital created a six-month round-the-world tour of the Commonwealth, including the primary visit to Australia and New island by a ruling British monarch. In 1957, once state visits to varied European nations, she and the duke visited North American nation and the United States. In 1961 she made the first royal British tour of the Indian landmass in fifty years, and she or he was also the first reigning British monarch to visit South America (in 1968) and therefore the Persian Gulf countries (in 1979). throughout her “Silver Jubilee” in 1977, she presided at a London banquet attended by the leaders of the thirty six members of the Commonwealth, traveled everywhere Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and toured overseas within the Pacific and Australia, in Canada, and in the Caribbean.

On the accession of Queen Elizabeth, her thereforen Charles became heir apparent; he was named blue blood of Wales on Gregorian calendar month 26, 1958, and was so invested with on July 1, 1969. The queen’s alternative kids were aristocrat Anne (Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise), born August 15, 1950, and created princess in 1987; blue blood Andrew (Andrew Prince Albert Christian Edward), born Feb 19, 1960, and created duke of House of York in 1986; and Edward Antony Richard Louis (Edward Anthony Richard Louis), born March 10, 1964, and created peer of Wessex and Viscount Severn in 1999. of these kids have the cognomen “of Windsor,” however in 1960 Elizabeth determined to make the combined name Mountbatten-Windsor for alternative descendants not titled prince or aristocrat and royal highness. Elizabeth’s 1st offspring (Princess Anne’s son) was born on Nov 15, 1977.

the fashionable monarchy

The queen appeared more and more tuned in to the fashionable role of the autarchy, allowing, for example, the televising of the royalty’s domestic life in 1970 and condoning the formal dissolution of her sister’s wedding in 1978. within the 1990s, however, the royal family moon-faced variety of challenges. In 1992, a year that Elizabeth noted because the royal family’s annus horribilis, Charles and his wife, Diana, aristocrat of Wales, separated, as did blue blood Andrew and his wife, Sarah, peeress of York. Moreover, Anne divorced, and a hearth gutted the royal residence of Windsor Castle. In addition, as the country struggled with a recession, rancor over the royals’ life-style mounted, and in 1992 Elizabeth, though in person exempt, united to pay taxes on her personal income. The separation and later divorce (1996) of Charles and therefore the vastly standard Diana more worn support for the royal family, that was viewed by some as antediluvian and unfeeling. The criticism intense following Diana’s death in 1997, particularly once Elizabeth at the start refused to permit the emblem to fly at half-staff over Buckingham Palace. In line along with her earlier tries at modernizing the monarchy, the queen afterwards wanted to gift a less-stuffy and less-traditional image of the monarchy. These tries were met with mixed success.

Queen Elizabeth
Queen Elizabeth

In 2002 Elizabeth celebrated her fiftieth year on the throne. As a part of her “Golden Jubilee,” events were command throughout the Commonwealth, as well as many days of festivities in London. The celebrations were somewhat diminished by the deaths of Elizabeth’s mother and sister early within the year. starting in the latter part of the primary decade of the twenty first century, the general public standing of the royalty rebounded, and even Charles’s 2005 wedding to Camilla Parker Bowles found abundant support among Brits people. In Gregorian calendar month 2011 Elizabeth junction rectifier the family in celebrating the marriage of blue blood William of Wales—the elder son of Charles and Diana—and Catherine Middleton. the subsequent month she surpassed George III to become the second longest-reigning monarch in British history, behind Victoria. additionally in May, Elizabeth created a historic trip to eire, turning into each the primary British monarch to go to nation republic and therefore the first to line foot in Ireland since 1911. In 2012 Elizabeth celebrated her “Diamond Jubilee,” marking sixty years on the throne. On Sept 9, 2015, she surpassed Victoria’s record reign of sixty three years and 216 days.

In August 2017 Philip formally retired from public life, although he sporadically appeared at official engagements once that. within the meantime, Elizabeth began to scale back her own official engagements, passing a little duties on to Charles and alternative senior members of the royalty, though the pool of stand-ins shrank when Charles’s younger son, blue blood Harry, duke of Sussex, and his wife, Meghan, peeress of Sussex, polemically selected to provide up their royal roles in March 2020. throughout this period, public interest in the queen and therefore the royal family grew as a result of the widespread quality of The Crown, a Netflix tv series regarding the Windsors that debuted in 2016. Having restrained many physical setbacks in recent years, Philip, who had been Elizabeth’s husband for quite seven decades, died in Gregorian calendar month 2021. On their fiftieth wedding anniversary, in 1997, Elizabeth had aforementioned of Philip, “He has, quite simply, been my strength and keep of these years.”

Elizabeth is understood to favour simplicity in court life and is additionally known to require a heavy and educated interest in government business, apart from the standard and ceremonial duties. Privately, she became a keen horsewoman; she keeps racehorses, often attends races, and sporadically visits the American state stud farms within the United States. Her money and property holdings have created her one in every of the world’s richest women.

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